(IISD) Biofuels At What Cost? A review of costs and benefits of EU biofuel policies

This report evaluates the principal costs and benefits of the European Union’s biofuels industry, based on an assessment of best available information. Depending on the availability of data, some costs and benefits are quantified, while others have not been due to a lack of systematic or disaggregated information. In reality, policy-makers do not always make their decisions based on considerations of the net impacts of given policies on the entire economy or social welfare; hence the approach taken in this report looks at the costs and benefits to key constituencies. The analysis does not look to assess the effect of given policies on the entire economy or social welfare (which can be explored through a classic cost-benefit analysis [CBA]) or cost-effectiveness analysis of policies, but rather adopts a practical approach to assessing costs and benefits as they impact recipient groups.